Thursday, June 4, 2020

Ibn Katheer's Tafsir of Surah Al Hujurat, Ayat 13: O mankind! We have created you from a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes...

Al-Hujurat 49:13
English - Mohsin Khan/Taqi-ud-Din al-Hilali
O mankind! We have created you from a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know one another. Verily, the most honourable of you with Allah is that (believer) who has At-Taqwa [i.e. one of the Muttaqun (pious - see V. 2:2). Verily, Allah is All-Knowing, All-Aware.

English - Tafsir ibn kathir
All of Mankind are the Children of `Adam and Hawwa' 

Allah the Exalted declares to mankind that He has created them all from a single person, Adam, and from that person He created his mate, Hawwa. From their offspring He made nations, comprised of tribe, which include sub tribes of all sizes.

It was also said that `nations refers to non-Arabs, while `tribes refers to Arabs.

Various statements about this were collected in an individual introduction from the book, Al-Inbah, by Abu Amr Ibn Abdul-Barr, and from the book, Al-Qasad wal-Amam fi Ma`rifah Ansab Al-Arab wal-`Ajam. Therefore, all people are the descendants of Adam and Hawwa' and share this honor equally.

The only difference between them is in the religion that revolves around their obedience to Allah the Exalted and their following of His Messenger.

After He forbade backbiting and belittling other people, alerting mankind that they are all equal in their humanity.

Allah said,

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّا خَلَقْنَاكُم مِّن ذَكَرٍ وَأُنثَى وَجَعَلْنَاكُمْ شُعُوبًا وَقَبَايِلَ لِتَعَارَفُوا

O mankind!

We have created you from a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes that you may know one another.

so that they get to know each other by their nation or tribe.

Mujahid said that Allah's statement, 
لِتَعَارَفُوا
 (that you may know one another), refers to one's saying,

"So-and-so the son of so-and-so, from the tribe of so-and-so."

Sufyan Ath-Thawri said,

"The Himyar (who resided in Yemen) dealt with each other according to their provinces, while the Arabs in the Hijaz (Western Arabia) dealt with each other according to their tribes."
Honor is earned through Taqwa of Allah 

Allah the Exalted said,
 
إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عِندَ اللَّهِ أَتْقَاكُمْ

Verily, the most honorable of you with Allah is that (believer) who has At-Taqwa.

meaning, `you earn honor with Allah the Exalted on account of Taqwa, not family lineage.'

There are many Hadiths from the Prophet that support this meaning.

Al-Bukhari narrated that Abu Hurayrah said,

"Some people asked the Prophet, `Who is the most honorable among people?'

He replied,

أَكْرَمُهُمْ عِنْدَ اللهِ أَتْقَاهُم

The most honorable among them with Allah is the one who has the most Taqwa.

They said, `We did not ask you about this.'

He said,

فَأَكْرَمُ النَّاسِ يُوسُفُ نَبِيُّ اللهِ ابْنُ نَبِيِّ اللهِ ابْنِ نَبِيِّ اللهِ ابْنِ خَلِيلِ الله

Then the most honorable person is Yusuf, Allah's Prophet, the son of Allah's Prophet, the son of Allah's Prophet, the son of Allah's Khalil.

They said, `We did not ask you about this.'

He said,

فَعَنْ مَعَادِنِ الْعَرَبِ تَسْأَلُونِّي

Then you want to ask me about the Arab lineage?

They said, `Yes.'

He said,

فَخِيَارُكُمْ فِي الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ خِيَارُكُمْ فِي الاِْسْلَمِ إِذَا فَقُهُوا


Those among you who were best in Jahiliyyah, are the best among you in Islam, if they attain religious understanding."

Al-Bukhari collected this Hadith in several places of his Sahih, An-Nasa'i did as well in the Tafsir section of his Sunan.

Muslim recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

إِنَّ اللهَ لَا يَنْظُرُ إِلَى صُوَرِكُمْ وَأَمْوَالِكُمْ وَلكِنْ يَنْظُرُ إِلَى قُلُوبِكُمْ وَأَعْمَالِكُم

Verily, Allah does not look at your shapes or wealth, but he looks at your hearts and actions.

Ibn Majah also collected this Hadith.

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Abdullah bin Umar said,

"On the day Makkah was conquered, the Messenger of Allah performed Tawaf around the Ka`bah while riding his camel, Al-Qaswa', and was touching the corners with a stick he had in his hand. He did not find a place in the Masjid where his camel could sit and had to dismount on men's hands. He led his camel to the bottom of the valley, where he had her sit down. The Messenger of Allah later gave a speech while riding Al-Qaswa' and said, after thanking Allah the Exalted and praising Him as He should be praised,

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّ اللهَ تَعَالَى قَدْ أَذْهَبَ عَنْكُمْ عُبِّيَّةَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ وَتَعَظُّمَهَا بِأبَايِهَا فَالنَّاسُ رَجُلَانِ رَجُلٌ بَرٌّ تَقِيٌّ كَرِيمٌ عَلَى اللهِ تَعَالَى وَرَجُلٌ فَاجِرٌ شَقِيٌّ هَيِّنٌ عَلَى اللهِ تَعَالَى إِنَّ اللهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ يَقُولُ 

O people!

Allah the Exalted has removed from you the slogans of Jahiliyyah and its tradition of honoring forefathers.

Men are of two types, a man who is righteous, fearful of Allah and honorable to Allah, or a man who is vicious, miserable and little to Allah the Exalted.

Verily, Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّا خَلَقْنَاكُم مِّن ذَكَرٍ وَأُنثَى وَجَعَلْنَاكُمْ شُعُوبًا وَقَبَايِلَ لِتَعَارَفُوا
 
إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عِندَ اللَّهِ أَتْقَاكُمْ
 
إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ خَبِيرٌ


(O mankind! We have created you from a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know one another. Verily, the most honorable of you with Allah is that (believer) who has At-Taqwa. Verily, Allah is All-Knowing, All-Aware.)

The Prophet said,

أَقُولُ قَوْلِي هذَا وَأَسْتَغْفِرُ اللهَ لِي وَلَكُم

I say this and invoke Allah for forgiveness for me and for you."

This was recorded by `Abd bin Humayd.

Allah the Exalted said,

إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ خَبِيرٌ
 
 

Verily, Allah is All-Knowing, All-Aware.

means, `He is All-Knowing of you and All-Aware of all of your affairs.'

Allah guides whom He wills, misguides whom He wills, grants mercy to whom He wills, torments whom He wills, elevates whom He wills above whom He wills. He is the All-Wise, the All-Knowing, the All-Aware in all this.

Several scholars relied on this honorable Ayah and the honorable Hadiths we mentioned as evidence that compatibility in marriage is not a condition of marriage contracts. They said that the only condition required in this regard is the adherence to the religion, as in the statement of Allah, the Exalted, 

إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عِندَ اللَّهِ أَتْقَاكُمْ

 (Verily, the most honorable of you with Allah is the one with the most Taqwa).


Friday, May 29, 2020

Tafseer: You will not find any people who believe in Allah and the Last Day, making friendship with those who oppose...

Al-Mujadila 58:22
English - Tafsir ibn kathir
لَاا تَجِدُ قَوْمًا يُوْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الاْاخِرِ يُوَادُّونَ
 
مَنْ حَادَّ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَلَوْ كَانُوا ابَاءهُمْ أَوْ أَبْنَاءهُمْ أَوْ إِخْوَانَهُمْ أَوْ عَشِيرَتَهُمْ



You will not find any people who believe in Allah and the Last Day, making friendship with those who oppose Allah and His Messenger, even though they were their fathers or their sons or their brothers or their kindred.

Meaning, do not befriend the deniers, even if they are among the closest relatives.

Allah said,

لااَّ يَتَّخِذِ الْمُوْمِنُونَ الْكَـفِرِينَ أَوْلِيَأءَ مِن دُونِ الْمُوْمِنِينَ وَمَن يَفْعَلْ ذَلِكَ فَلَيْسَ مِنَ اللَّهِ فِي شَىْءٍ إِلَا أَن تَتَّقُواْ مِنْهُمْ تُقَـةً وَيُحَذِّرْكُمُ اللَّهُ نَفْسَهُ

Let not the believers take the disbelievers as friends instead of the believers, and whoever does that will never be helped by Allah in any way, except if you indeed fear a danger from them. And Allah warns you against Himself. (3:28),

and,

قُلْ إِن كَانَ ءَابَاوُكُمْ وَأَبْنَأوُكُمْ وَإِخْوَنُكُمْ وَأَزْوَجُكُمْ وَعَشِيرَتُكُمْ وَأَمْوَلٌ اقْتَرَفْتُمُوهَا وَتِجَـرَةٌ تَخْشَوْنَ كَسَادَهَا وَمَسَـكِنُ تَرْضَوْنَهَأ أَحَبَّ إِلَيْكُمْ مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَجِهَادٍ فِي سَبِيلِهِ فَتَرَبَّصُواْ حَتَّى يَأْتِىَ اللَّهُ بِأَمْرِهِ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِى الْقَوْمَ الْفَـسِقِينَ

Say:If your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your wives, your kindred, the wealth that you have gained, the commerce in which you fear a decline, and the dwellings in which you delight are dearer to you than Allah and His Messenger, and striving hard and fighting in His cause, then wait until Allah brings about His decision (torment).

And Allah guides not the people who are the rebellious. (9:24)

Sa`id bin `Abdul-`Aziz and others said that this Ayah,

لَاا تَجِدُ قَوْمًا يُوْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الاْاخِرِ 

You will not find any people who believe in Allah and the Last Day... 

was revealed in the case of Abu Ubaydah Amir bin Abdullah bin Al-Jarrah when he killed his disbelieving father, during the battle of Badr. This is why when Umar bin Al-Khattab placed the matter of Khilafah in the consultation of six men after him, he said; "If Abu Ubaydah were alive, I would have appointed him the Khalifah."

It was also said that the Ayah, 

وَلَوْ كَانُوا ابَاءهُمْ
 (even though they were their fathers), was revealed in the case of Abu Ubaydah, when he killed his father during the battle of Badr,

while the Ayah, 

أَوْ أَبْنَاءهُمْ
 (or their sons) was revealed in the case of Abu Bakr As-Siddiq when he intended to kill his (disbelieving) son, Abdur-Rahman, (during Badr),

while the Ayah, 

أَوْ إِخْوَانَهُمْ
 (or their brothers) was revealed about the case of Mus`ab bin `Umayr, who killed his brother, Ubayd bin Umayr, during Badr,

and that the Ayah, 

أَوْ عَشِيرَتَهُمْ
 (or their kindred) was revealed about the case of Umar, who killed one of his relatives during Badr, and also that this Ayah was revealed in the case of Hamzah, Ali and Ubaydah bin Al-Harith. They killed their close relatives Utbah, Shaybah and Al-Walid bin Utbah that day.

Allah knows best.

A similar matter is when Allah's Messenger consulted with his Companions about what should be done with the captives of Badr.

Abu Bakr As-Siddiq thought that they should accept ransom for them so the Muslims could use the money to strengthen themselves. He mentioned the fact that the captured were the cousins and the kindred, and that they might embrace Islam later on, by Allah's help.

Umar said,

"But I have a different opinion, O Allah's Messenger! Let me kill so-and-so, my relative, and let Ali kill Aqil (Ali's brother), and so-and-so kill so-and-so. Let us make it known to Allah that we have no mercy in our hearts for the idolators."

Allah said,
 
أُوْلَيِكَ كَتَبَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمُ الاِْيمَانَ وَأَيَّدَهُم بِرُوحٍ مِّنْهُ

For such He has written faith in their hearts, and strengthened them with Ruh from Himself.

means, those who have the quality of not befriending those who oppose Allah and His Messenger, even if they are their fathers or brothers, are those whom Allah has decreed faith, meaning, happiness, in their hearts and made faith dear to their hearts and happiness reside therein.

As-Suddi said that the Ayah, 
كَتَبَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمُ الاِْيمَانَ
 (He has written faith in their hearts), means,

"He has placed faith in their hearts."

Ibn Abbas said that, 
وَأَيَّدَهُم بِرُوحٍ مِّنْهُ
 (and strengthened them with Ruh from Himself), means,

"He gave them strengths."

Allah's statement,
 
وَيُدْخِلُهُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الاَْنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا
 
رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ وَرَضُوا عَنْهُ

And He will admit them to Gardens under which rivers flow, to dwell therein. Allah is well pleased with them, and they are well pleased with Him.

was explained several times before.

Allah's statement,
 
رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ وَرَضُوا عَنْهُ

Allah is well pleased with them, and they are well pleased with Him.

contains a beautiful secret. When the believers became enraged against their relatives and kindred in Allah's cause, He compensated them by being pleased with them and making them pleased with Him from what He has granted them of eternal delight, ultimate victory and encompassing favor.

Allah's statement,

 
أُوْلَيِكَ حِزْبُ اللَّهِ
 
أَلَا إِنَّ حِزْبَ اللَّهِ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ
 
 


They are the party of Allah. Verily, the party of Allah will be the successful.

indicates that they are the party of Allah, meaning, His servants who are worthy of earning His honor.

Allah's statement, 
أَلَا إِنَّ حِزْبَ اللَّهِ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ
 (Verily, the party of Allah will be the successful), asserts their success, happiness and triumph in this life and the Hereafter, in contrast to those, who are the party of the devil, 
أَلَا إِنَّ حِزْبَ الشَّيْطَانِ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ
 (Verily, the party of Shaytan will be the losers!)